14 Highest Mountain In The World That Are Above 8000 Meters

2021-07-21 | Published By: Bold Himalaya

The Himalayas cover about 0.4 percent of the Earth's surface. The Himalayas in Asia have many high mountains that all have a huge role in nature. Nature is powerful and mysterious, and one of those places where you feel like you're just this tiny dot in the immense natural panorama. Mountains are one of the most fascinating natural wonders of the world. 

here we are going to brief about the 14 highest mountains that are above 8000m high in the world.

1. Mount Everest

The Mother of All Mountains: Mount Everest

Mount Everest, known as the "mother of all mountains," towers at an astonishing height of 8,848.86 meters (29,031.69 feet) according to a joint announcement by the Survey Department of Nepal and Chinese authorities in 2020. This iconic peak rises from the Himalayas on the Nepal-Tibet border, making it the highest point above sea level and earning it the title of the "highest mountain in the world."


Mount Everest: Earth's highest mountain

Height: 8,848.86m / 29031.69ft

Location: Himalayas, Nepal / Tibet Autonomous Region, China

A Geological Marvel

Everest is believed to be over 60 million years old. It is part of the Mahalangur section of the Great Himalayas, formed by the collision of the Indian and Eurasian tectonic plates. This collision caused the rocks to push upward, creating the majestic peaks of the Himalayas.


A Historic Climb

The allure of Everest has captivated travelers and adventurers for centuries. It was declared the world's highest mountain during the Great Trigonometrical Survey of India in 1856. The mountain was named after the British surveyor Sir George Everest, but it is also known as Sagarmatha in Nepalese, meaning "Peak of Heaven" or "Goddess of the Sky," and Qomolangma or Chomolungma in Tibetan, meaning "Holy Mother."


The First Ascent

In 1953, New Zealander Sir Edmund Hillary and Nepali Sherpa Tenzing Norgay became the first to reach Everest's summit. Before their successful ascent, many mountaineers had attempted the climb, including George Mallory, who discovered the north route to the summit in 1921, and George Finch, who reached an altitude of over 8,230 meters (27,000 feet) using oxygen for the first time in 1922.


Climbing Routes

Mount Everest straddles the border of Nepal and Tibet, offering two main climbing routes: the southeast ridge from Nepal and the north ridge from Tibet. The southeast ridge, first conquered in 1953, is the most popular and scenic route.


The Everest Expedition

Climbing Mount Everest is a formidable challenge that takes around 65 days to complete. Unlike trekking to Everest Base Camp, summiting Everest requires rigorous preparation and acclimatization. Climbers face extreme weather conditions, low temperatures, and demanding climbing requirements.

Best Time to Climb

The best time to climb Mount Everest is from April to May and mid-June to August. During these months, the Himalayas experience sunny and warm days, clear skies, and a mesmerizing atmosphere. These conditions offer climbers breathtaking views of the surrounding mountains.


Embarking on an Everest expedition is not for the faint-hearted, but for those who dare to take on the challenge, the rewards are beyond measure.

2. K2

K2: The Savage Mountain

Location and Significance

K2, the second-highest mountain in the world, stands at 8,611 meters (28,251 feet) above sea level. It is located on the China-Pakistan border, between Baltistan in the Gilgit-Baltistan region of northern Pakistan and Dafdar Township in Taxkorgan Tajik Autonomous County of Xinjiang, China. K2 is the highest point of the Karakoram mountain range, which traverses the borders of China, India, and Pakistan, extending northwest to Afghanistan and Tajikistan. Known as the heart of the Karakoram, K2 is a prominent peak in both Pakistan and Xinjiang.

Height: 8,611m / 28251.3ft

Location: Pakistan / China 

History and Naming

K2 is famously referred to as the "Savage Mountain," a name coined by George Bell in 1953 due to its treacherous nature. The name K2 comes from the notation used during the Great Trigonometrical Survey of British India. Thomas Montgomerie first surveyed the Karakoram from Mt. Haramukh, about 210 km (130 mi) to the south, sketching the two most notable peaks and marking them as K1 and K2, where 'K' stands for Karakoram. Locally, K2 is also known as Chogori, derived from the Balti words "chhogo" and "ri," meaning "big mountain." Other names include Qogir, Lamba Pahar, and Dapsang, though these are less commonly used.

Geographical Features

The glacier and snow-capped K2 rises from its base at around 4,570 meters (15,000 feet) on the Godwin Austen Glacier, a tributary of the Baltoro Glacier. It forms a steep pyramid, dropping sharply in all directions. The north side of the mountain is the steepest, rising over 3,200 meters (10,500 feet) above the K2 (Qogir) Glacier in just 3,000 meters (9,800 feet) of horizontal distance. The peak, along with Broad Peak and the area extending westward to the Sarpo Laggo Glacier, consists of metamorphic rocks known as K2 Gneiss, part of the Karakoram Metamorphic Complex.

Climbing Challenges

K2 is considered the deadliest mountain, with a fatality rate of one climber for every four who reach the summit. It is the only eight-thousand-meter peak never ascended in winter or from its eastern face. The best time for a K2 expedition is during the warmest months, July and August when most ascents occur. The mountain's harsh weather, steep slopes, and extreme elevation make it more difficult and dangerous to climb than Everest.

Historical Ascents

The first serious attempt to climb K2 was in 1902 by Oscar Eckenstein, Jules Jacot-Guillarmod, Aleister Crowley, Heinrich Pfannl, Victor Wessely, and Guy Knowles via the Northeast Ridge, which was unsuccessful. Several other attempts followed, but it wasn't until July 31, 1954, that the Italian Karakoram expedition successfully reached the summit via the Abruzzi Spur. Climbers Lino Lacedelli and Achille Compagnoni made the historic ascent, led by Ardito Desio.

Climbing Routes and Difficulties

There are several routes on K2, each with unique challenges, though all the main climbing routes are on the Pakistani side, where the base camp is also located. The extreme elevation leads to a lack of oxygen, making the climb difficult. Severe storms, steep and exposed slopes, and the committing nature of all routes further add to the challenges of climbing K2.

K2 remains one of Earth's most remarkable and dangerous mountains, drawing adventurers from around the world to its formidable slopes.

3. Kangchenjunga

Kangchenjunga: The Heavenly Mountain Range

Location and Significance

Kangchenjunga is a magnificent and heavenly mountain range that has captured the dreams of climbers worldwide. Located in the eastern Himalayas on the border between Sikkim state and eastern Nepal, Kangchenjunga stands at an impressive altitude of 8,586 meters (28,169 feet). It is the third-highest mountain in the world and a prominent peak in the division of the Himalayas known as the Kangchenjunga Himal. This majestic range is bordered to the west by the Tamur River, to the north by the Lhonak Chu and Jongsang La, and to the east by the Teesta River. The Kangchenjunga mountain range forms an immense cross, with its arms extending in all directions—north, south, east, and west.

Mount Kangchenjunga: third highest mountain

Height: 8,586m / 28169.291 ft

Location: Himalayas, Nepal/India

The Five Peaks

Kangchenjunga is a mountain range comprising five significant peaks:

  1. Kangchenjunga Main (8,586m/28,169ft)
  2. Kangchenjunga West (8,505m/27,904ft)
  3. Kangchenjunga Central (8,482m/27,828ft)
  4. Kangchenjunga South (8,494m/27,867ft)
  5. Kangbachen (7,903m/25,928ft)

Three of these peaks—Main, Central, and South—are directly located on the border of Nepal and Sikkim. The remaining two—West and Kangbachen—are entirely within Nepal.

Name and Etymology

The name Kangchenjunga, also spelled Kanchenjunga, is derived from four Tibetan words: Kang-chen-dzo-nga or Yang-chhen-dzö-nga, which translates to “Five Treasuries of the Great Snow.” In the Limbu language, it is known as Senjelungma or Aeseylungma. The official spelling, Kangchenjunga, was endorsed by Douglas Freshfield, Alexander Mitchell Kellas, and the Royal Geographical Society.

Historical Significance

Kangchenjunga was believed to be the highest mountain in the world until 1852. However, calculations based on readings and measurements presented by the Great Trigonometrical Survey of India in 1849 concluded that Mount Everest (then known as Peak XV) held that title.

Climate and Weather

The weather on Kangchenjunga is highly unpredictable, even within the same season. Temperatures can plummet below -25 degrees Celsius at higher altitudes and the mountain experiences sub-zero temperatures throughout the winter.

Notable Ascents

The first successful ascent of Kangchenjunga was made by Joe Brown and George Band on May 25, 1955. However, the journey to this achievement began with an expedition in 1905 led by Aleister Crowley, which established a viable route. Additionally, a British geological expedition in 1925 reported sighting a bipedal creature on the mountain, which locals referred to as the "Kangchenjunga Demon."

Kangchenjunga remains one of the most awe-inspiring and challenging peaks in the world, continuing to allure climbers and adventurers with its breathtaking beauty and formidable presence.

4. Lhotse

Lhotse: The Fourth Highest Mountain in the World

Location and Significance

Lhotse, the fourth-highest mountain in the world, stands at an elevation of 8,516 meters (27,940 feet). This majestic mountain range in the Himalayas includes the smaller peaks of Lhotse Middle (East) at 8,414 meters (27,605 feet) and Lhotse Shar at 8,383 meters (27,503 feet). Situated on the border between Nepal and the Tibet Autonomous Region of China, Lhotse is connected to Mount Everest by a high ridge at approximately 7,600 meters (25,000 feet). Lhotse is renowned for its proximity to Mount Everest, the highest mountain in the world.

Mount Lhotse: fourth-highest mountain

Height: 8,516m / 27939.6ft

Location:  Himalayas, Nepal/Tibet Autonomous Region, China

Name and Etymology

The name Lhotse means "South Peak" in Tibetan. In 1931, the Survey of India originally designated it as E1, indicating Everest 1. Often mistaken for Everest due to its imposing presence, Lhotse features one of the world's most dramatic and challenging south faces. This south face rises 3.2 kilometers within a horizontal span of 2.25 kilometers, making it the steepest face of this size globally. The south face is rarely attempted due to its extreme difficulty.

Historical Ascents

The first attempt to climb Lhotse was in 1955 by an International Himalayan Expedition led by Norman Dyhrenfurth, which included Austrians Erwin Schneider and Ernst Senn and Swiss climbers Bruno Spirig and Arthur Spöhel. Though unsuccessful, this was the first expedition in the Everest region to involve Americans. On May 18, 1956, the main summit of Lhotse was first successfully climbed by the Swiss team of Ernst Reiss and Fritz Luchsinger during the Swiss Mount Everest/Lhotse Expedition. 

The highest unclimbed named point, Lhotse Middle, remained untouched until May 23, 2001, when a Russian expedition led by Eugeny Vinogradsky, Sergei Timofeev, Alexei Bolotov, and Petr Kuznetsov reached the summit. Additionally, the first solo ascent without supplemental oxygen was made by Hristo Prodanov on April 30, 1981, as part of the first Bulgarian Himalayan expedition.

Climbing Routes and Challenges

The standard climbing route for Lhotse follows the same trail as Everest's South Col route up to the Yellow Band past Camp 3. After this point, the routes diverge: climbers heading to Everest take a left over the Geneva Spur to the South Col, while Lhotse climbers veer right up the Lhotse face. The final section to the summit ascends through the narrow "Reiss couloir" until reaching the main peak.

Expedition Details

The Lhotse expedition is an excellent alternative to the Everest Expedition, completing in approximately 56 days. The journey begins with a trek to the foot of Mount Everest and the popular Everest Base Camp, offering breathtaking views of surrounding mountain ranges and forests. Lhotse expeditions are more affordable due to lower permit fees while providing a similar climbing experience. Climbers often add Lhotse to an Everest expedition, as the two peaks are connected by the South Col of Everest to Lhotse.

Climbing Lhotse requires excellent physical conditions due to severe weather conditions and high altitudes above 8,500 meters. Despite the challenges, the adventure to the summit of the fourth highest mountain in the world is a dream for climbers globally.

5. Makalu

The Majestic Makalu: The Fifth Highest Mountain in the World

Location and Elevation

Standing at an impressive 8,485 meters (27,838 feet), Makalu is the fifth-highest mountain in the world. It is part of the Mahalangur Himalayas, situated 19 kilometers (12 miles) southeast of Mount Everest, on the border between Nepal and the Tibet Autonomous Region of China. This majestic peak is protected under Makalu Barun National Park, which spans an area of 2,330 square kilometers. Makalu has two notable subsidiary peaks: Kangchungtse, also known as Makalu II (7,678 meters), located around 3 kilometers (1.9 miles) north-northwest of the main summit, and Chomo Lonzo (7,804 meters), rising approximately 5 kilometers (3.1 miles) north-northeast of the main summit.

Structure and Name

Makalu is renowned for its perfect pyramid structure, with four ridges that enhance its allure. The name "Makalu" is derived from the Sanskrit word "Maha-Kala," meaning "Big Black," a by-name of Shiva, one of the most important gods in Hinduism. Locally, Makalu is also known as "Kumba Karna," which means "The Giant." Isolated and remote, the Makalu region is one of Nepal's most unfrequented trekking areas, often referred to as an off-the-beaten trail due to its geographical remoteness.

Mount Makalu fifth-highest mountain in the world

Height: 8,485m / 27837.9ft

Location: Himalayas, Nepal / Tibet Autonomous Region, China

Expedition Overview

The Makalu Expedition typically takes around 50 to 55 days to complete. Before the ascent, climbers trek through terraced farmlands and dense forests filled with rhododendron trees. The Arun and Barun valleys in the Makalu region are home to 650 species of birds and over 800 species of butterflies, making the natural vegetation a significant attraction. From the summit of Makalu, climbers are rewarded with enchanting views of the highest mountains and peaks in the world.

Challenges and Climbing History

Makalu is considered one of the most challenging eight-thousanders to climb, known for its steep pitches and knife-edged ridges. The final ascent includes technical rock or ice climbing, requiring climbers to have prior peak climbing experience and excellent physical and mental condition. The mountain's adverse climatic conditions can lead to hazardous mountain sickness, further increasing the difficulty of the expedition.

The first attempt to summit Makalu was made by an American team in 1954, led by Riley Keegan and composed of Sierra Club members, including Allen Steck. However, they were forced to turn back at 7,100 meters (23,300 feet) due to constant storms. After several unsuccessful attempts, the first successful ascent of Makalu was achieved on May 15, 1955, by Lionel Terray and Jean Couzy as part of a French expedition led by Jean Franco. 

The following day, Franco, Guido Magnone, and Gyalzen Norbu Sherpa reached the summit, followed by Jean Bouvier, Serge Coupé, Pierre Leroux, and André Vialatte on May 17. This large number of successful summits from a single expedition was a remarkable achievement at the time, given the mountain's difficulty.

In subsequent years, the mountain saw other notable attempts, including two unsuccessful attempts without oxygen by the 1960-61 Silver Hut expedition. In May 1971, French climbers B. Mellet and Y. Seigneur successfully climbed the very technical West Pillar route, further cementing Makalu's reputation as a challenging and prestigious climb.

6. Cho Oyu

Cho Oyu: The Sixth Highest Mountain in the World

Height and Location

Standing at an impressive elevation of 8,188 meters (26,864 feet), Cho Oyu is the sixth-highest mountain in the world. It is located on the border between Tibet and Nepal, making it the westernmost major peak of the Khumbu sub-section of the Mahalangur Himalaya, about 20 kilometers west of Mount Everest. Just a few kilometers west of Cho Oyu lies Nangpa La (5,716 meters / 18,753 feet), a glaciated pass that serves as a central trading route connecting the Tibetans and the Sherpas of Khumbu. This pass also separates the Khumbu and Rolwaling Himalayas.

Name and Historical Measurements

In Tibetan, Cho Oyu means "Turquoise Goddess." Initially, it was considered the seventh-highest mountain on Earth at the time of the first ascent. The elevation was originally measured as 8,150 meters (26,750 feet), placing it behind Dhaulagiri at 8,167 meters (26,795 feet). Manaslu, now recognized at 8,156 meters (26,759 feet), was also initially estimated lower at 8,125 meters (26,658 feet). A 1984 estimate of 8,201 meters (26,906 feet) moved Cho Oyu up to the sixth position. In 1996, new measurements by the Government of Nepal Survey Department and the Finnish Meteorological Institute determined the height to be 8,188 meters, a figure remarkably similar to the 8,189 meters (26,867 feet) used by Edmund Hillary in his 1955 book High Adventure.

Mount Cho Oyu:  Sixth Highest Mountain in the World

Height: 8,188m / 26863.5ft

Location: Himalayas, Nepal/Tibet Autonomous Region, China

Climbing Routes and Expedition Details

Cho Oyu can be ascended via two main routes: one from the south (Nepal side) and the other from the north, which is the west ridge. The west ridge route is considered the normal route. Climbing Cho Oyu is semi-technical, involving little ice cliffs, a rock band, and some crevasses. The route above the advanced base camp mainly consists of low-angled snow slopes up to 35 degrees, with a short but very steep section to bypass a sérac barrier at 6,475 meters. Climbers typically establish two or three camps on the mountain before reaching the summit. Camp 1 is located at 6,400 meters, Camp 2 at around 7,100 meters, and the highest camp at 7,450 meters. The entire expedition takes around 40 to 45 days to complete.

Due to its proximity to Nangpa La Pass and the generally moderate slopes of the regular northwest ridge route, Cho Oyu is considered the easiest 8,000-meter peak to climb. It was also the fifth 8,000-meter peak to be climbed and is the second most climbed eight-thousander after Everest, with over four times the ascents of the third most popular eight-thousander, Gasherbrum II.

Historical Ascents

The first attempt at Cho Oyu was made by an expedition organized and financed by the Joint Himalayan Committee of Great Britain as preparation for an attempt on Everest the following year. Led by Eric Shipton, the expedition included notable climbers like Edmund Hillary, Tom Bourdillon, and George Lowe. However, due to technical problems and avalanche danger at an ice cliff over 6,650 meters (21,820 feet), the attempt was halted. The mountain was first successfully climbed two years later on October 19, 1954, via the northwest ridge. 

Herbert Tichy, Joseph Jöchler, and Sherpa Pasang Dawa Lama of an Austrian expedition made the first ascent, achieving the highest peak climbed without supplemental oxygen until Reinhold Messner and Peter Habeler's ascent of Everest in 1978.

Climbing and Trekking

Cho Oyu is often marketed as a trekking peak, making it accessible to climbers with high fitness levels and low mountaineering experience. The summit of the mountain features a broadly flat plateau with a cairn, which can cause confusion and debate among climbers about whether it marks the true summit. The traditional prayer flags on Cho Oyu's summit plateau do not mark the technical summit. 

Notably, Cho Oyu has the lowest death-summit ratio among the 8,000-meter peaks, with a ratio about 1/25th of Annapurna's. The summit offers breathtaking views of Mount Everest and the surrounding Himalayas, making it a sought-after destination for climbers and trekkers alike.

7. Dhaulagiri

The Seventh Highest Mountain in the World: Dhaulagiri 

The seventh-highest mountain in the world, Dhaulagiri I, stands at an impressive elevation of 8,167 meters (26,795 feet). It is renowned for its stunning, artistic beauty and holds the distinction of being the highest mountain located entirely within Nepal. The Dhaulagiri range stretches 120 kilometers (70 miles) from the Kaligandaki River in the west to the Bheri River. The massif is bordered by the Bheri River to the north and the Myagdi Khola to the southeast.

Name and Historical Significance

Dhaulagiri, named from the Sanskrit words "dhawala" meaning dazzling, white, and beautiful, and "giri" meaning mountain, was considered the world's highest peak upon its survey computation in 1808. This status lasted until 1838 when Kangchenjunga took the title, followed by Mount Everest in 1853, which remains the highest mountain in the world. Additionally, Dhaulagiri I is the highest point of the Gandaki River basin. Annapurna I, the tenth-highest mountain globally at 8,091 meters (26,545 feet), is located 34 kilometers east of Dhaulagiri. The Kali Gandaki River flows between these two peaks, carving the world's deepest gorge, the Kali Gandaki Gorge. The mountain's sudden rise from lower terrain is nearly unmatched, with its south and west fronts soaring precipitously above 4,000 meters (13,120 feet). The south face of Gurja Himal, part of the same massif, is also notably vast.

Dhaulagiri: Seventh Highest Mountain in the World

Height: 8,167m / 26794.6ft

Location: Nepal

First Ascents and Climbing History

The first successful ascent of Dhaulagiri I occurred on May 13, 1960. A Swiss-Austrian expedition led by Max Eiselin saw climbers Kurt Diemberger, Peter Diener, Ernst Forrer, Albin Schelbert, Nyima Dorje Sherpa, and Nawang Dorje Sherpa reach the summit. This expedition set a record for the highest fixed-wing aircraft landing, despite the aircraft crashing in Hidden Valley north of the mountain during takeoff and subsequently being abandoned.

The second successful ascent took place in 1970 via the northeast ridge by a Japanese expedition led by Tokufu Ohta and Shoji Imanari, with Tetsuji Kawada and Lhakpa Tenzing Sherpa reaching the summit. In the autumn of 1978, Seiko Tanaka of Japan led a successful climb on the very challenging southeast ridge.

Climbing Routes and Statistics

Most ascents of Dhaulagiri I follow the northeast ridge route of the first ascent, although climbers have explored various other directions. As of 2007, there had been 358 successful ascents and 58 fatalities, resulting in a fatality rate of 16.2%. Additionally, 2.88% of the 2,016 expedition members and staff who ventured above base camp between 1950 and 2006 died.

Climbing Seasons and Preparation

The optimal climbing seasons for Dhaulagiri I are from April to May and mid-June to August when the days are warmer, and the threat of snow is reduced. Climbing Dhaulagiri I is challenging, as are all 8,000-meter peaks, and requires prior peak or mountain climbing experience. The mountain's weather and temperature are highly unpredictable, and higher altitudes can present additional difficulties. Climbers need to be both mentally and physically well-prepared.

The Dhaulagiri I expedition typically lasts almost seven weeks, including a week-long trek to the base camp, situated at an elevation of 4,750 meters. The journey offers not only a formidable climbing challenge but also some of the most breathtaking views in the Himalayas.

8. Manaslu

Manaslu:  Eighth-Highest Mountain in the World

Towering at 8,163 meters (26,781 feet) above sea level, Manaslu is the eighth-highest mountain in the world. Located in the Mansiri Himal, part of the Nepalese Himalayas in the west-central region of Nepal, Manaslu is the highest peak in the Gorkha District. It stands approximately 64 kilometers (40 miles) east of Annapurna. The mountain's large ridges and valley glaciers offer reasonable access from all directions, culminating in a peak that towers steeply over its surrounding landscape, making it a dominant feature when viewed from afar.

Name and Cultural Significance

The name Manaslu is derived from the Sanskrit word "Manasa," meaning intellect or soul, hence "mountain of the spirit." Manaslu is also known as Kutang in the Tibetan language, where "Kutan" indicates a flat place. It is said that "just as the British regard Everest as their mountain, Manaslu has forever been a Japanese mountain."

Height: 8,163m / 26781.496ft

Location: Nepal

Weather and Climate

The permanent snow line on Manaslu is estimated to be above 5,000 meters. The temperature in the area varies widely with the climatic zone, with the arctic zone falling within the permanent snow line, where temperatures remain much below freezing. Important peaks surrounding Manaslu include Ngadi Chuli, Himalchuli, and Baudha. North of Manaslu lies a glacial saddle known as Larkya La, with an elevation of 5,106 meters (16,752 feet).

Climbing History

There are at least six different routes to climb Manaslu, with the south-face route being the toughest in climbing history. H.W. Tilman was the first European to lead an expedition to the Annapurna Range, where he saw Manaslu and its plateau, concluding that there was a direct route to the summit. However, the team did not attempt the ascent. Between 1950 and 1955, four Japanese expeditions explored the possibility of climbing Manaslu by the north and east faces. In 1953, a team of 15 climbers led by Y. Mita attempted to climb Manaslu via the east side but failed to reach the summit.

On May 9, 1956, Toshio Imanishi (Japan) and Gyaltsen Norbu (Sherpa) made the first ascent of Manaslu as part of a Japanese expedition led by Maki Yuko, also known as Aritsune Maki. The second ascent occurred on May 17, 1971, by an 11-man Japanese team, with Kazuharu Kohara and Motoki reaching the summit via the northwest spur. Reinhold Messner climbed the southwest face for the first time as part of an Austrian expedition. The first Japanese women's expedition, led by Kyoko Sato, successfully summited on May 4, 1974. Since then, there have been numerous successful ascents.

Risks and Climbing Season

Manaslu is one of the riskiest eight-thousanders to climb. The best climbing seasons are from April to May and mid-June to August when the days are warmer and the threat of snow is reduced. The spring or pre-monsoon season is the least dangerous for snowfall, bad weather, and avalanches. As of May 2008, there have been 297 ascents of Manaslu and 53 fatalities, making it the fourth most dangerous 8,000-meter peak, behind Annapurna, Nanga Parbat, and K2. Climbers need previous climbing experience for the Manaslu Expedition and all other mountains above 8,000 meters.

Trekking and Wildlife

Apart from climbing, the Manaslu region is popular among trekkers. It offers breathtaking views of snow-capped Himalayan mountains and close interaction with various ethnic groups living in hill villages along the trek route. The valley is a sanctuary for many endangered animals, including snow leopards and red pandas. 

Other mammals found in the region include the Asian black bear, dhole, Himalayan musk deer, lynx, Himalayan tahr, mainland serow, grey wolf, Himalayan goral, woolly hare, black-lipped pika, horseshoe bat, and blue sheep. Additionally, 110 species of birds, 11 species of butterflies, and 3 species of reptiles have been recorded in the area. The region also boasts 19 types of forests and various dominant vegetation classes.

The Manaslu Expedition

Climbing the world's eighth-highest mountain, Manaslu is a preferred option for climbers worldwide. The complete Manaslu Expedition takes around seven weeks, including a trek to the base camp. The summit of Manaslu offers the most enchanting views of the highest mountains in the world, with a breathtaking panorama of nearby peaks, broad landscapes, and glaciers. The sight from the top is mesmerizing, making the challenging ascent well worth the effort.

9. Nanga Parbat

Nanga Parbat: The Ninth Highest Mountain in the World

A tremendous, dramatic peak standing far above its surrounding terrain, Nanga Parbat is the ninth-highest mountain in the world, with an elevation of 8,126 meters (26,660 feet) above sea level. This mountain is located in the Diamer District of the Gilgit-Baltistan region in Pakistan. Moreover, Nanga Parbat is the western anchor of the Himalayas. It rests just south of the Indus River in the Pakistan-administered region of Kashmir, with the Indus River running more than seven kilometers below the high end of the massif. The western end of the Karakoram range is not far to the north of the mountain.

Height: 8,126m / 26660.1ft

Location: Pakistan

Name and Location

Locally known as Diamer or Deo Mir, meaning "huge mountain," the name Nanga Parbat is derived from the Sanskrit words "nagna" and "parvata," which together mean the "Naked Mountain." Nanga Parbat is one of only two mountains on Earth that rank in the top twenty for both the highest mountain and the most prominent peak in the world. It ranks fourteenth in terms of prominence and is the second most prominent peak of the Himalayas after Mount Everest. Zoji La in Kashmir is the key col for Nanga Parbat, connecting it to higher peaks in the remaining Himalayas and the Karakoram range. Nanga Parbat has large vertical relief above local terrain in all directions.

Climbing History

Nanga Parbat is known to be a challenging climb. After its discovery by Europeans, attempts to summit Nanga Parbat began very soon. The first attempt was in 1895 by an expedition led by Albert F. Mummery. Mummery and two Gorkha companions reached almost 6,100 meters (20,000 feet) on the Diamer (west) but later died while reconnoitering the Ralhoit Face. Nanga Parbat became the focus of German interest in the Himalayas in the 1930s. The first German expedition in 1932, led by Willy Merkl, was unsuccessful.

On July 3, 1953, Nanga Parbat was first climbed by Austrian climber Hermann Buhl via the Rakhiot Flank (East Ridge). He was a member of a German-Austrian team led by Peter Aschenbrenner from Kufstein, who had participated in the 1932 and 1934 attempts. The expedition was organized by Karl Herrligkoffer from Munich, Willy Merkl's half-brother. The ascent was made without supplemental oxygen, and Buhl is the only man to have made the first ascent of an 8,000-meter peak solo. 

Since then, the Diamir Face route has become the standard route. The French climber Lilliane Barnard became the first woman to ascend Nanga Parbat, along with her husband Maurice Barnard, in 1984. On February 26, 2016, Nanga Parbat was successfully climbed in winter for the first time by a team consisting of Ali Sadpara, Alex Txikon, and Simone Moro.


Nanga Parbat is a colossal and awe-inspiring mountain, steeped in history and known for its challenging climbs. With its towering height and significant prominence, it remains a key feature of the Himalayan range and a formidable objective for mountaineers worldwide.

10. Annapurna

The Highest Peak of the Annapurna Massif: Annapurna Main

Introduction to Annapurna 1st

Annapurna 1st, the highest peak of the Annapurna massif, is the tenth-highest mountain in the world, standing at 8,091 meters (26,545 feet) above sea level. The Annapurna massif is primarily a mountain range located in the Himalayas in north-central Nepal. Spanning approximately 55 kilometers (34 miles), the Kali Gandaki Gorge bounds the massif to the west, the Marshyangdi River to the north and east, and the Pokhara Valley to the south. Annapurna Main is the only peak over 8,000 meters in the Annapurna mountain range.

Etymology and Significance of Annapurna

The name "Annapurna" derives from the Hindu goddess of food and nourishment, believed to reside there. The Sanskrit words "Anna" (food) and "purna" (filled) translate to "everlasting food." Many streams descending from the slopes of the Annapurna range provide water for the agricultural areas and plains at lower elevations, highlighting the mountain's importance to the surrounding regions.

Height: 8,091m / 26545.28ft

Location: Nepal

Historical Ascent of Annapurna

Annapurna was the first 8,000-meter peak to be ascended. On June 3, 1950, Maurice Herzog and Louis Lachenal of the French Annapurna expedition reached the summit. This expedition, led by Herzog, included Lionel Terray, Gaston Rébuffat, Marcel Ichac, Jean Couzy, Marcel Schatz, Jacques Oudot, and Francis de Noyelle. Marcel Ichac made a documentary about the expedition called "Victoire sur l'Annapurna." The summit of Annapurna was the highest summit attained for three years until the first successful ascent of Mt. Everest.

Notable Expeditions and Ascents

In 1978, the American Women's Himalayan Expedition became the first United States team to climb Annapurna I, led by Arlene Blum. In 1981, the Polish expedition Zakopane Alpine Club established a new route on Annapurna I Central (8,051 meters), known as Zakopiańczyków Way. This route was recognized as the best achievement of the Himalayan season in 1981. Additionally, Polish climbers Jerzy Kukuczka and Artur Hajzer made the first winter ascent of Annapurna I on February 3, 1987.

In October 2007, Slovenian climber Tomaz Humar made the first solo ascent of the south face. Swiss climber Ueli Steck soloed the Lafaille route on October 8 and 9, 2013, on the main and highest part of the face, marking his third attempt on the route. This climb has been called "one of the most impressive Himalayan climbs in history."

Challenges and Dangers of Climbing Annapurna

Climbing Annapurna is one of the most dangerous undertakings, with high risks of avalanches. All routes present significant challenges, including huge ice cliffs and seracs. Good physical condition and previous peak climbing experience are highly recommended for those attempting to reach the summit. The Annapurna Expedition takes around 45-55 days to complete. The base camp is located at the bottom of the climb, and the ascent from base one to Camp II is a very technical section of the route. The climbing becomes slightly less steep but remains difficult with high objective avalanche danger. The summit of Annapurna is on an exposed ridge and does not require fixed ropes, allowing for free climbing.

Cultural and Natural Highlights

The Annapurna expedition offers majestic views and high mountain experiences within the Annapurna Sanctuary. After achieving the summit, climbers descend following the same route back to base camp. This expedition not only provides a lifetime mountaineering experience but also offers the opportunity to explore cultural and traditional villages, along with the region's flora and fauna.

Conclusion: The Enchanting Annapurna Massif

The Annapurna massif is one of the most enchanting spots on Earth, with several notable peaks within its range, including Annapurna II, Annapurna IV, Annapurna South, Dhaulagiri, Gangapurna, Himalchuli, Machhapuchhre (Fishtail), Lamjung Himal, and Hiunchuli.

11. Gasherbrum I

Gasherbrum I: The Eleventh Highest Mountain in the World

Location and Elevation

Gasherbrum I, standing at an elevation of 8,080 meters (26,510 feet) above sea level, is the 11th-highest mountain in the world. It is located in the Gilgit-Baltistan region of Pakistan and is part of the Gasherbrum massif within the Karakoram Range of the Himalayas.

Geographical Context

Gasherbrum is a remote group of high peaks in the Karakoram and one of the four 8,000-meter peaks situated in a tight cluster on the upper reaches of the Baltoro glacier. This mountain lies about a thousand miles west of Nepal's Himalayan mountain range.

Naming and Etymology

Gasherbrum I is also known as Hidden Peak. The name "Gasherbrum" is often interpreted to mean "Shining Wall," likely referencing the highly visible face of the nearby peak Gasherbrum IV. However, the name originates from the Balti words "Agasha" (beautiful) and "Brum" (mountain), thus translating to "beautiful mountain." Gasherbrum I was designated K5 by T.G. Montgomerie in 1865 when he first spotted the peaks of the Karakoram. K5 means the 5th peak of the Karakoram. Later, in 1892, William Martin Conway provided the alternative name "Hidden Peak" due to its extreme remoteness.

Height: 8,080 meters (26,510 feet)

Location: Pakistan

Climbing History

Gasherbrum I is considered one of the least popular of the 8,000-meter peaks. The first successful ascent occurred on July 5, 1958, by Pete Schoening and Andy Kauffman of an eight-man American expedition led by Nicholas B. Clinch. Other members of the team included Tom Nevison, Tom McCormack, Richard K. Irvin, Bob Swift, and Gil Roberts.

Reinhold Messner and Peter Habeler also reached the summit on a new route (northwest route) in pure alpine style, marking the first time this style was used on an 8,000-meter peak. Benoit Chamoux, alongside Italian Giampiero Di Federico, made the first solo ascent on July 14, 1985, opening a new route on the northwest face. On March 9, 2012, the first winter ascent was made by Polish climbers Adam Bielecki and Janusz Gołąb.

Challenges and Ascent Routes

Gasherbrum I has one of the lowest death rates among the 8,000-meter peaks, likely because only highly experienced mountaineers attempt this challenging climb. Despite its difficulty, Gasherbrum I has had fewer than 200 ascents, placing it tenth on the ascent list for 8,000-meter peaks. The most common route to the summit is from the western side, with all routes leading to "the Japanese Couloirs" on top of the northwest face.

12. Broad Peak

Broad Peak: The Twelfth Highest Mountain in the World

Location and Elevation

Broad Peak, standing at an elevation of 8,047 meters (26,401 feet) above sea level, is the 12th-highest mountain in the world. It is located on the border of Pakistan and China and is part of the Karakoram mountain range, included in the Gasherbrum massif. Broad Peak is situated approximately 8 kilometers (5 miles) away from K2, the second-highest mountain in the world. Notably, Broad Peak is considered one of the objectively safest eight-thousanders to climb.

Naming and Etymology

The name "Broad Peak" is a literal translation of "Falchan Kangri," though this term is not commonly used among the Balti people. The English name was introduced in 1892 by the British explorer Martin Conway, who named the mountain after the similarly named Breithorn in the Alps. The mountain's summit is over 1.5 kilometers (0.93 miles) long, which also contributes to its name.

Height: 8,047 meters (26,401 feet)

Location: Pakistan / China

Summits of Broad Peak

Broad Peak has five summits: Broad Peak (8,051 m), Rocky Summit (8,028 m), Broad Peak Central (8,011 m), Broad Peak North (7,490 m), and Kharut Kangri (6,942 m).

First Ascent

The first successful ascent of Broad Peak occurred between June 8 and 9, 1957, by an Austrian expedition led by Marcus Schmuck. The team members included Fritz Wintersteller, Kurt Diemberger, and Hermann Buhl. The first attempt on May 29 saw Fritz Wintersteller and Kurt Diemberger reach the forepeak (8,030 m) without supplemental oxygen, high-altitude porters, or base camp support.

Notable Ascents

An Austrian mountaineering team later climbed Broad Peak and retrieved the body of Markus Kronthaler, who had died on the mountain a year earlier. In July 2007, Frenchwoman Élisabeth Revol made a solo ascent of Broad Peak, Gasherbrum I, and Gasherbrum II within 16 days, completing the expedition without supplemental oxygen after her climbing partner Antoine Girard fell ill. The first winter ascent was achieved by Maciej Berbeka, Adam Bielecki, Tomasz Kowalski, and Artur Małek on March 5, 2013. This ascent made Broad Peak the twelfth eight-thousander to be summited in winter and the first to be summited in winter by Polish climbers. On July 23, 2016, Frenchman Antoine Girard paraglided over Broad Peak, marking the first time a paraglider had flown above an 8,000-meter summit.

Climbing Route and Safety

The route to the summit of Broad Peak is direct and relatively short, with few difficult passages secured with fixed ropes. Climbers set up three camps above the base camp, with the final camp located around 6,950 meters from the base of the summit pyramid. Broad Peak is considered one of the safer 8,000-meter peaks, allowing climbers to enjoy the rich local cultures and astounding scenery.

Expedition Duration and Requirements

A Broad Peak expedition takes around 40 to 45 days to complete. Although climbing Broad Peak is considered relatively easy, climbers need prior peak climbing experience due to the unpredictable weather and climate at high altitudes. Mental and physical fitness are crucial for a successful ascent and descent.

Cultural and Natural Highlights

The expedition is conducted in alpine style, and the route from Broad Peak Base Camp to K2 Base Camp is only about one and a half hours away. Climbers on a Broad Peak expedition not only experience the thrill of high-altitude mountaineering but also have the opportunity to immerse themselves in the rich local cultures and breathtaking scenery of the Karakoram range.

13. Gasherbrum II

Gasherbrum II: The 13th Highest Mountain in the World

Location and Elevation

Rising majestically to an elevation of 8,034 meters (26,358 feet), Gasherbrum II stands as the 13th highest mountain in the world. It straddles the border between Pakistan and China within the Karakoram mountain range, nestled atop the Baltoro Glacier.

Structure and Name

Gasherbrum II, originally designated K4 by Thomas George Montgomerie in 1856 during the Great Trigonometric Survey, derives its name from the Balti words "rgasha" (beautiful) and "brum" (mountain). It boasts a prominent Southwest Ridge, which was first conquered on July 7, 1956, by Austrians Fritz Moravec, Josef Larch, and Hans Willenpart.

Height: 8,034 meters (26,358 feet)

Location: Pakistan / China

Expedition Overview

Embarking on an expedition to Gasherbrum II typically spans about 40 to 45 days. The climb begins amidst the stunning landscapes of the Karakoram, with base camps strategically set up to facilitate the ascent via the northwest route, known as the Japanese Couloir. Climbers navigate through camps at increasing altitudes, encountering challenging yet rewarding terrains en route to the summit.

Challenges and Climbing History

Known for its relative safety among the 8,000-meter peaks, Gasherbrum II still presents formidable challenges, requiring climbers to possess significant mountaineering experience. The mountain's northwest face, where the most common routes lie, offers a direct ascent but demands meticulous planning and technical skill due to its steep inclines and icy conditions.

The first winter ascent of Gasherbrum II was achieved on March 9, 2012, by Polish climbers Adam Bielecki and Janusz Gołąb, marking a significant milestone in mountaineering history. Over the years, several successful ascents have underscored Gasherbrum II's allure and technical appeal, making it a prized achievement for mountaineers seeking to conquer the world's highest peaks.

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14. Shisha Pangma

Shisha Pangma: The 14th Highest Mountain in the World

Location and Elevation

Standing proudly at an elevation of 8,027 meters (26,335 feet), Shishapangma is the 14th-highest mountain globally and the highest peak solely within Chinese territory. Located in the Jugal Himal region, it lies approximately 5 kilometers from the Nepal border, in south-central Tibet. Shishapangma is known for its distinct summit and is also referred to as Gosainthan, meaning "place of the saint" or "Abode of God."

Structure and Name

Shishapangma's name has various interpretations rooted in local languages. In Sanskrit, it translates to "place of the saint," while in Tibetan dialects, it signifies "crest above the grassy plains." Geologist Toni Hagen noted another interpretation where "shisha" refers to meat from animals that died naturally, and "pangma" denotes malt dregs from brewing beer. This linguistic diversity adds layers to the mountain's identity.

Shisha Pangma: The 14th Highest Mountain in the World

Expedition Overview

Climbing Shishapangma typically involves a 40 to 45-day expedition, beginning with vehicle access to base camp at 5,000 meters (16,400 feet). The Northern Route, ascending via the northwest face and northeast ridge, is the most common approach due to its easier accessibility. The climb presents technical challenges, particularly on the steeper southwest face, which includes a 2,200-meter (7,220-foot) ascent on a 50-degree slope.

Challenges and Climbing History

Shishapangma's first successful ascent was on May 2, 1964, via the Northern Route by a Chinese expedition led by Xu Jing. This achievement marked a significant milestone in mountaineering history. Subsequent ascents, including a notable Japanese women's expedition and a Polish team pioneering new routes, underscored the mountain's appeal and challenges.

Restrictions and Allure

Shishapangma was the last among the 8,000-meter peaks to be climbed, primarily due to restrictions on access imposed by Chinese authorities. Despite these challenges, Shishapangma's allure lies in its manageable approach to base camp and relatively mild ascent compared to other peaks in its height category. Climbing Shishapangma offers a fulfilling experience amidst breathtaking Himalayan scenery, making it a coveted achievement for mountaineers seeking to conquer the world's highest peaks.