Snow Leopard Facts and Information

2022-11-24 | Published By: Bold Himalaya

The snow leopard, scientifically known as Panthera uncia, is a unique species of large feline that resides in the Himalayan region spanning across Asia. This magnificent creature, commonly referred to as the snow leopard, holds immense significance in the realm of environmental conservation in high-altitude areas of Asia. Being a top predator, it plays a vital role in maintaining ecological equilibrium and represents a healthy mountain ecosystem.

However, its survival is at risk due to the rising human and climate-related pressures on its habitat and population.

Snow Leopard Facts | Information | Habitats | Endangered

Introduction of Snow Leopard

Snow Leopards are located in 12 countries and are estimated to be no more than 10,000 snow leopards worldwide. The International Union for Conservation of Nature lists it as a vulnerable species. It is classified in Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. The Government of Nepal (GoN) also fully protected the species under the Fifth Amendment to the National Park and Wildlife Conservation Act. The IUCN Red List classifies it as Vulnerable because the worldwide population is anticipated to be less than 10,000 adult individuals and is likely to drop by roughly 10% by 2040.

It is under threat from poaching and habitat damage due to infrastructure expansion. It lives in alpine and subalpine zones at elevations ranging from 3,000-4,500 meters (9,800-14,800 feet) in eastern Afghanistan, the Himalayas, and the Tibetan Plateau to southern Siberia, Mongolia, and western China. It also lives at lower elevations in the northern half of its range.

The snow leopard was previously placed in the monotypic genus Uncia. Since phylogenetic studies showed their links, Panthera species have been regarded as members of that genus. Based on physical differences, two subspecies were described, although genetic differences have not been proven. As a result, it is considered a monotypic species. Snow leopards have adapted to exist in some of the world's highest and harshest environments. While nomadic herders and more permanent populations encroach on their distant environment, human population density remains low in the big cat's territory.

However, the snow leopard's high-alpine habitat is one of the most virtual environments for humans on the globe. According to WWF's extensive scientific analysis, more than two billion people reside in the water basins downstream from the snow leopard habitat, with over 330 million living within 10 kilometers of a river that starts in the mountains.

Guardians of the Headwaters Snow leopards hunt in Central Asian mountainous terrain more than 3,000 meters above sea level. The water cycle in this region is complicated, combining Water supplies From many sources like monsoons, winter snows, summer rains, melting glaciers, and extensive expanses of permanently frozen ground known as permafrost.

They comprise the headwaters of more than 20 important water basins, supplying water to 21 nations ranging from Azerbaijan to China. Water from snow leopard habitat supplies several of Asia's most vital rivers, including the Ganges, Indus, Yangtze, and Yellow, which run through some of the world's most heavily inhabited areas.

However, the crucial relevance of snow leopard habitat to the future of innumerable Asian populations is undeniable. And, as the region's human population grows, maintaining the region's valuable water supplies will become ever more critical. However, the snow leopard's alpine environment is becoming threatened due to human encroachment and climate change.

Baby snow leopard cub

There are already fears that the fast-warming world is influencing this sensitive habitat, endangering the snow leopard's future and the water supply of hundreds of millions of humans. Urgent action is required to minimize global warming and offset any detrimental effects on the mountains, preserving adequate habitat for snow leopards and ensuring water security for the enormous human populations downstream. Various factors, including increased poaching, conflict with humans, and habitat degradation, threaten snow leopards.

It is feasible to overcome these obstacles, but climate change will worsen them, necessitating even larger worldwide efforts to rescue the snow leopard and its unique environment. While climate change will have various effects in different locations, its overall influence will endanger the snow leopard and regional water resources. Increasing temperatures are expected to shift the tree line higher up the mountains, promote the growth of plant species that are less appealing to the snow leopard's natural prey species and livestock, expand the area suitable for crops, increase aridity, alter water availability timing, and melting glaciers and permafrost.

Comparison between Leopard and Snow leopard








51-68 lbs (23-31 kg)

60-120 lbs (27-55 kg)








Yellow with black rosettes

Grayish white with black rosettes




Conservation status

Near Threatened







Uncia Gray, 1854

Scientific name

Panthera pardus

Uuncia uncia


P. Pardus

U. uncia

Number in the wild

Around 69,000

About 7,000

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Characteristics of Snow Leopard

Snow leopards have thick grey and yellow-tinged fur with solid spots on their head, throat, and lower limbs and rosettes all over their body. Rosettes are huge rings that surround smaller areas. When performing camera trap studies, WWF depends on spot patterns to identify individual snow leopards.

Snow leopards also have exceptionally long, thick tails that they use to balance on rocks and wrap around their body for warmth in the winter. Because of their small forelimbs and large hind limbs, they are incredibly agile and may jump as far as 50 feet. They also have huge, hairy paws that serve as snowshoes and protection against sharp rocks.

snow leopard habitat

Snow Leopard Amazing Facts

  • Snow Leopard Amazing Facts Snow leopards have speckled white-greyish fur that keeps them warm in the winter. It can measure 5cm on the back and sides and nearly 12cm on the belly. A snow Leopard's tail may grow to be 80-105cm long, which is supposed to aid in balance and wrap around its body for warmth.

  • Blue sheep, the snow leopard's preferred prey in Nepal, will feed one snow leopard for a week. Snow leopards eat ibex, Himalayan tahr, marmot, pika, hares, small rodents, game birds, and blue sheep.

  • Snow leopards reside in high-altitude mountainous areas, generally at 3,000-4,500 meters. They enjoy cliffs, rocky outcrops, and ravines with steep, broken terrain. Snow leopards have small forelimbs and long rear legs, allowing them to traverse and remain nimble in their harsh habitats.

  • Snow leopards, unlike other large cats, cannot roar.

  • Snow leopards have a "main" sound that has been characterized as a "piercing Despite its name; the snow leopard is more closely related to the tiger than the leopard.

  • A snow leopard's large, fur-covered paws act as natural snowshoes, distributing its weight across soft snow and protecting it from the cold.

  • Snow leopards may travel up to 25 kilometers in a single night.

  • Snow leopards have excellent concealment! Individual snow leopards are difficult to distinguish due to their long coats and less obvious patterns that appear to change form with body movement compared to other large cats with more recognizable markings, such as tigers, leopards, and jaguars.

  • The snow leopard would excel in most athletic activities, with the long jump being its strongest suit. Snow leopards have been observed leaping up to 9 meters - six times their total length.

  • There may be as few as 4,000 leopards in the wild, although the precise number is unclear due to their elusiveness. Their primary risks include habitat loss and degradation, human-wildlife conflict, prey loss, illicit trade poaching, and climate change. As a result, snow leopards require our assistance; the WWF is collaborating with communities, governments, and other

Snow Leopard FAQ

Where is the snow leopard found?

Snow leopards are found across northern and central Asia's high mountains, including the Himalayas. Snow leopards reside in high alpine locations in the Himalayas, mostly above tree lines and up to 18,000 feet in height. China, Bhutan, Nepal, India, Pakistan, Russia, and Mongolia are among the nations where they may be found.

What do snow leopards eat?

Snow leopards can kill animals three times their weight. Blue sheep, Argali wild sheep, ibex, marmots, pikas, deer, and other small animals are all prey. Local populations hunt the animals that snow leopards generally hunt, such as Argali sheep. As their natural prey becomes more challenging to locate, snow leopards are frequently driven to attack cattle to survive, often resulting in retaliatory killings of snow leopards by local farmers or herders.

How big is the snow leopard?

An adult snow leopard weighs between 27 and 54 kg and measures 75 to 150 cm long without its tail.

Why are snow leopards endangered?

Humans. The greatest threats to this large cat include hunting, habitat degradation, decreases in natural prey species, and retaliatory deaths due to human-wildlife conflict. The climatic issue has also had a severe influence on snow leopard survival. Rising global temperatures can significantly influence alpine habitat productivity, affecting prey and freshwater availability in the challenging mountain environment.

What efforts are going to conserve snow leopards?

When snow leopards prey on cattle, a cycle of human-wildlife conflict begins. Many o governmental and nongovernmental Organizations are working hard to solve this dispute.

Working to understand ecosystems better to ensure the next generation of snow leopards live among humans There is an ongoing initiative to bring together Indigenous Cultural Practitioners (ICPs) who live and work in snow leopard areas. Over 100 members of the Land of Snow Leopard Network are resurrecting traditional knowledge in their communities and rekindling the mystical power of the snow leopard.

Installation of predator-proof livestock enclosures to decrease livestock loss and snow leopard retaliation Using powerful monitoring techniques to keep an eye on the snow leopard population Increasing and expanding local community livelihood options so that they can profit from sharing space with snow leopards.

What is the minimum temperature at which a snow leopard can live?

Snow leopards are found in the frigid alpine tundra environment. Their natural environment is rocky, chilly, and occasionally mountainous. Because the temperature is below freezing, it is difficult for plants or vegetation to grow; the only plants that grow are bushes and grass.

The annual average temperature is roughly 47° Fahrenheit. This may not appear to be very cold, but temperatures may shift quickly. The average temperature in the winter is approximately 33° Fahrenheit.

The lowest temperature recorded was 14° Fahrenheit in January. Summer temperatures average about 56° Fahrenheit. In June, the maximum temperature was recorded.

The annual precipitation is roughly 16 inches. In the summer, there are around 3 inches of rain. In the winter, there is approximately.5 inches of precipitation. Precipitation in the Himalayan Alpine range includes sleet, snow, and rain. 

How many snow leopards are alive in the world?

Snow leopards are thought to number between 4,500 and 7,500 in Central Asian highlands. China is home to 60% of the world's snow leopard population. The estimations are based on limited polls conducted decades ago.

Estimated snow leopard populations: 


100 – 200


100 – 200


No Studies


2,000 – 2,500


200 – 600


180 – 200


800 – 1400


500 – 1,000


350 – 500


250 – 420


50 – 150


120 – 300


10 – 50